সাময়িক প্রসঙ্গ
মুসলিম স্পেন : উত্থান-পতনের সংক্ষিপ্ত ইতিবৃত্ত
আবু সা‘দ ড. মো. ওসমান গনী

†¯úb †ivgvb‡`i Avg‡j GKwU cÖ‡`k wQj| K¨v÷vBj, AvivMb, bvfv‡i, MÖvbvWv I c~Z©Mvj mgš^‡q †¯úb cieZ©x‡Z GKwU iv‡óª cwiMwYZ nq| j¨vwUb bvg wn¯úvwbqv| gymjgvbiv bvg iv‡Lb Avj Av›`vjym| †ivgvb-evRv›UvBb‡`i ÔAvgj n‡Z DwjøwLZ †¯úb wewfbœ bv‡g kvwmZ n‡Zv| ZLbKvi ivR‰bwZK A‰bK¨ †hb wbZ¨Kvi NUbv n‡q c‡owQj| 82 eQi eq¯‹ iWvwiK ivRv DBwZhv‡K nZ¨v K‡i wmsnvm‡b Av‡ivnY K‡ib| iWvwi‡Ki †Rvic~e©K ÿgZv MÖnY ivR¨e¨vcx Am‡š‘vl †`Lv †`q| †mbvevwnbx, eyw×Rxex I wekc‡`i g‡a¨ Uvbvc‡ob m„wó nq| mgv‡R wekc‡`i cÖfve wQj Acwimxg| kvmKMY wekc‡`i Øviv wbe©vwPZ n‡Zb| AwfRvZ m¤úª`vqI ÿzä nb| `~ieZ©x cÖ‡`‡ki Mfb©i I we‡`ªvnx †bZvMY ÿz`ª ÿz`ª ¯^vaxb ivóª cÖwZôvi my‡hvM jvf K‡i| G‡Z †K›`ªxq kvmb `ye©j n‡q c‡o| B‡Zvg‡a¨ wbnZ DBwZhvi RvgvZv KvD›U Rywjqvb ivRv iWvwi‡Ki Dci `viæY wei³ I exZkÖ× n‡q D‡Vb|

KvD›U Rywjqvb ZrKvjxb cÖ_vbyhvqx ¯^xq Kb¨v †d¬vwiÛv‡K ivRKxq Av`e Kvq`v I wkóvPv‡i Af¨¯Í nIqvi Rb¨ iWvwi‡Ki ivRcÖvmv‡` †cÖiY K‡ib| †d¬vwiÛv iWvwiK KZ©…K cÖjyä I wec_Mvwgbx nb| iWvwi‡Ki G‡nb AvPi‡Y Rywjqvb Mfxifv‡e gg©vnZ nb Ges cÖwZ‡kv‡ai cÖni ¸b‡Z _v‡Kb|

†gvUK_v, iWvwi‡Ki †Rvic~e©K ÿgZv MÖnY, `ytkvmb I Rywjqvb `ywnZvi mv‡_ Am`vPi‡Yi d‡j Z`vwbšÍb †¯ú‡bi mvgwMÖK Ae¯’v Lvivc n‡q D‡V| `vwi`ª¨wK¬ó RbmvaviY, `ytLx µxZ`vm, `yf©vMv f‚wg`vm I DrcxwoZ Bqvn~`xMY †hb mK‡j mg‡eZfv‡e GKRb ÎvYKZ©vi A‡cÿv KiwQ‡jb|

ivR¨gq wec` wek„•Ljvi d‡j A‰bK¨Zv cÖKU i~c jvf K‡i| B‡Zvg‡a¨ AvwdªKvi Mf©bi g~mv web bymvB‡ii ivR¨mxgv AvUjvw›UK‡K ¯úk© K‡i| cv‡kB wQj wmDUv| wmDUv ZLb ivRv÷vBb mv¤ªvR¨axb wQj| wmDUvi Mf©bi wQ‡jb Rywjqvb| wZwb iWvwi‡Ke `y®‹g© I `ytkvm‡bi weiæ‡× g~mv web bymvBi‡K AeMZ K‡ib| †¯ú‡bi wecyj abm¤ú` I De©iZvi D‡jøL K‡i g~mv‡K †¯úb Avµg‡Y cÖ‡ivwPZ K‡ib|

my‡hvM mÜvbx g~mv AbwZwej‡¤^ Lwjdv Lvwj‡`i AbygwZµ‡g Pvik c`vwZK I GKk Ak¦v‡ivnxi GKUv `j‡K Ave~ †hvi Zvwi‡di †bZ…‡Z¡ †cÖiY K‡ib| Ave~ †hvi Rywjqvb DcüZ PviwU Rvnv‡R K‡i cÖYvjx AwZµg c~e©©K †¯ú‡b c`vc©Y K‡ib| mdjZvi mv‡_ MwbgZ msMÖn K‡i 710 wLªóv‡ãi RyjvB gv‡m wd‡i Av‡mb| AbyK‚j cwi‡ek AbyaveY K‡i g~mv ZvwiK web whqv‡`i †bZ…‡Z¡ mvZ nvRvi ˆmb¨ cvVvb| BZ¨em‡i iWvwiK Ab¨Î we‡`ªvn `g‡b e¨¯Í wQ‡jb| msev` †c‡q cÖwZ‡iv‡ai Rb¨ wekvj evwnbx wb‡q GwM‡q Av‡mb| †PŠKl g~mv mwe‡kl AeMZ n‡q AviI cuvPnvRvi ˆmb¨ †cÖiY K‡ib| †gvU ˆmb¨ msL¨v `uvovq 12 nvRvi| iWvwi‡Ki ˆm‡b¨i Zzjbvq †eRvq Kg| wKš‘ gymwjg evwnbxi fvM¨ mycÖmbœ n‡jv; wek¦vmNvZKZvi nvZ †c‡q| hy× nq Iqvw`‡e°v b`xi Zx‡i| ZvwiL 711 wLªóv‡ãi 9 RyjvB| iWvwiK evwnbxi `yÕcv‡k wbnZ wcZv welYœ DBwZhvi `yÕcyÎ| mvg‡b †cQ‡b DrcxwoZ f‚wg`vm †mbv| AbxnvI N„Yvi hy‡× iWvwiK civRq eiY K‡ib| fvM¨¸‡Y gymjgvb‡`i AcÖZ¨vwkZ mvdj¨ AwR©Z nq| G‡Ki ci GK mKj bMi, ivR¨ gymwjg‡`i c`vbZ nq| †Rbv‡ij Zvwi‡Ki Amvgvb¨ mvd‡j¨ wegy» g~mvI weRq wZjK jv‡fi wjáv mseiY Ki‡Z bv †c‡i wb‡RI m‰m‡b¨ iIbv nb| `Lj K‡ib †gwWbv-wm‡Wvwbqv I †mwfj| cÖvq webv i³cv‡Z wewRZ nq gvjvMv, Awiû‡qbv, Gjwfiv, c~e© †¯ú‡bi f¨v‡jbwmqv, Avj‡gvwiqv I Z`xq ivRavbx U‡j©‡Wv cÖf…wZ ¯’vb|

†¯úb weR‡qi d‡j †mLvbKvi RbM‡Yi Rxe‡bi cÖwZ‡ÿ‡Î e¨vcK cÖfve we¯Ívi K‡i| Ávb weÁvb wkÿv mf¨Zvi bZzb w`K D‡b¥vwPZ nq| gymjgvb‡`i gvbeZv I AfvweZ mnbkxjZv wewRZ‡`i g‡b Av‡jvi mÂvi K‡i| Kuv‡a Kuva wgwj‡q ÁvbPP©v, Drcv`b I m„wó K‡g© wecøe mvwaZ nq| K…lK‡`i gvwjKvbv cÖwZwôZ nq| myweav‡fvMx AwfRvZ †kÖwYi ÿgZv A‡bKvs‡k n«vm cvq| µxZ`vm‡`i fv‡M¨i DbœwZ nq| AvZ¥wbqš¿‡Yi AwaKvi jvf K‡i| A¨vjvb, f¨vÛvj, my‡qfx, M_, †ivgvb Ges Bqvn~`x wbwe©‡k‡l mK‡ji Rb¨ mvgwMÖK wbivcËv mywbwðZ nq| K‡Vvi wbh©vZbg~jK Mw_K AvBb-Kvbyb evwZj nq| G‡Z Bqvn~`xiv DcK…Z nb| Zviv gymjgvb‡`i wgÎ wn‡m‡e miKvwi PvKzixi my‡hvM jvf K‡i| Kvjµ‡g K‡W©vfv Bqvn~`xev‡`i cÖvY‡K‡›`ª cwiYZ nq| gymjgvb‡`i mge¨envi, mwnòzZv I `vbkxjZv RbM‡Yi gb Rq Ki‡Z mg_© nq| gymwjg †¯úb BD‡iv‡ci wkÿv ms¯‹…wZi †R¨vwZ© †K‡›`ª cwiYZ nq|

K‡W©vfv mgMÖ BD‡iv‡ci Ávb, we`¨v I mf¨Zvi †K›`ªiƒ‡c cwiYZ n‡qwQj| BD‡iv‡ci mg¯Í ivR¨ n‡Z Ávb wccvmy nvRvi nvRvi QvÎgÐjx‡K hš¿ ms‡hv‡M ˆeÁvwbK ZË¡ Ges ivmvqwbK we‡kølY wkÿv †`qv n‡Zv| K‡W©vfv‡ZB M‡o D‡VwQj m‡Z‡ivwU MÖš’vMvi I AmsL¨ K¬ve| 32wU K‡jR I 500wU D”P †kÖwYi mycwiPvwjZ we`¨vjq| MÖvbvWv‡ZI cÖvq Abyiƒc cwigvY K‡jR I we`¨vjq cÖwZwôZ n‡qwQj| me myjZvbB bZzb bZzb wek¦we`¨vjq cÖwZôv K‡iwQ‡jb|

Lwjdv nvKv‡gi mgq cÖvq wZb jÿ QvÎ I QvÎx K‡W©vfv‡Z Aa¨qb KiZ| f‚‡Mvj wkÿvi Rb¨ †MvjK Ges gvbwPÎ e¨eüZ nZ| K‡W©vfvi gvbgw›`‡i eûmsL¨K bZzb hš¿ msM„nxZ Ges wbwg©Z n‡q iwÿZ nIqvq bvbv †`k †_‡K cwÐZgÐjxi AvMgb N‡U| Zviv wbweó wP‡Ë †R¨vwZ©we`¨vi Av‡jvPbv I bÿÎvw`i MwZ wba©viY Ki‡Zb| we‡`¨vrmvnx nvKvg cÖf‚Z A_© e¨q K‡i c„w_exi bvbv †`k Ges ivRavbx n‡Z eû h‡Zœ kZ kZ †jvK wb‡qvM †`b| wZwb Qq jÿ g~j¨evb Ges `y®úÖvc¨ MÖš’ msMÖn K‡iwQ‡jb| NwUKv h‡š¿i †`vjK Ges †UwjMÖv‡gi D™¢veb GLv‡b me©cÖ_g Avwe®‹…Z nq| ˆeÁvwbK hš¿ ms‡hv‡M ewÎk dzU Ea©Ÿ ch©šÍ Rjivwk D‡ËvwjZ n‡Zv|

wPwKrmvwe`¨vi Af‚Zc~e© DbœwZ mvwaZ nq| Rvwjby‡mi (Galen) ci wPwKrmv kv‡¯¿i ˆflR¨ZË¡, †ivMwb`vb Ges kixiwe`¨vi wewea AÁvZ Ges `y‡R©qZË¡ Avwe®‹…Z nq| GKv`k kZ‡Ki mycÖwm× wflK Aveyj Kv‡kg (Albecaris) A¯¿ wPwKrmvi Avðh© ˆbcyY¨ cÖ`k©b K‡iwQ‡jb| Zuvi wKQzw`b ci RMwØL¨vZ wflKvPvh© Ge‡b †hvni (Avenzoar) cÖv`yf©‚Z nb| wewea cÖKvi Jla I A¯¿ wPwKrmvi Avwe®‹Z©v wn‡m‡e L¨vwZ AR©b K‡ib| cÖwm× Dw™¢`ZË¡we` Beby eZ‡n †flR Jla m¤^Üxq mywekvj MÖš’ iPbv K‡ib| Bqvn~`x wPwKrmK nv‡m`vB Avðh© ai‡bi wPwKrmv Avwe®‹vi K‡i wek¦evmx‡K nZevK K‡i †Zv‡jb| Zvi Awfbe wPwKrmv †KŠk‡j bv‡f‡ii ivbx w_‡qvWvixi AmvaviY ¯’zj‡Z¡i jvNe mvwaZ nq|

Aviwe mvwnZ¨ Ges BwZnvm GLv‡b Pig DbœwZ jvf K‡iwQj| gymjgvb‡`i BwZnvmP©Pv Ges †mevi djkÖæwZ‡Z 70 L‡Ð †¯ú‡bi BwZnvm iwPZ n‡qwQj| f‚gЇj GKvj Aewa †Kv‡bv †`‡ki Ggb weivU BwZnvm iwPZ nqwb| m½xZ I KweZv K‡W©vfv‡K mg¨Kiƒ‡c cwicywó `vb K‡iwQj| GLv‡b m½x‡Zi gb‡gvnbx ivwMbx SsKvi kÖæZ n‡Zv| m½xZÁ †Rivi exbv‡Z cÂg Zv‡ii ms‡hvRb Ges Kuv‡Pi cvbcv‡Îi D™¢veb K‡ib|

bvixwkÿvq Zuviv AMÖMvgx wQ‡jb| AvUÕk eQi Av‡MB Zuviv †b‡cvwjq‡bi Avße¨vK¨v Abyaveb K‡iwQ‡jbÑ Give me a good mother, I will give a good nation| e¯‘Z †m mg‡q bvix wkÿvi cÖf‚Z DbœwZ mvwaZ nq| MÖvbvWvi bvqûY, hqbe, nvg&`v, nvd&mv, †mvwdqv, gvwiqv cÖf…wZ gymwjg gwnjv mgmvgwqK BD‡iv‡ci L¨vZbv¤œx Ávbx wQ‡jb| ¸qv-WvjvKmvivi nvm&mvbv Avj Zvwgwgqv, Avj‡gwiqv, Av¤§vZzj Avwhh, †f‡jwÝqvi Avj& Aviæwhqv cÖf…wZ Avie igbxe„›` cwÐZ‡`i `iev‡i D”P Avmb †c‡Zb| hqbeyj gyivweŸqv, gywiqg, Avmgv Avj-Avgvwiq, D¤§yj wnbv, evnhv, cÖf…wZ igYxMY Kwe wnmv‡e cÖwmw× AR©b K‡ib|

`k©b kv‡¯¿I Zviv †miv wQ‡jb| †¯ú‡bi `vk©wbK nvB web BqvKzRvb, Be‡b-Zzdv‡qj, Be‡b-iæk`, Be‡b gvBgyb-Bebyj Avivex, Be‡b-nvhg BZ¨vw` bvg AvRI cvðv‡Z¨i Ávbx gnj cig kÖ×vf‡i ¯§iY K‡i _v‡K|

¯’vcZ¨ I fv¯‹‡h© Ac~e© Mwigv AvRI wek¦evmx‡K nZevK K‡i| K‡W©vfvi weL¨vZ gmwR` ¯’vcZ¨ wk‡íi GK Abycg we¯§q| K‡W©vfv bMixi ˆ`N©¨ wQj Pwjøk gvBj Ges cÖ¯’ wQj Qq gvBj| mg¯Í Ask `vjvb‡KvVv, gmwR`, gv`&ivmv, K‡jR, wek¦we`¨vjq Ges ivRKxq ng©ivwR‡Z AwewQbœ †mŠ›`h© we¯Ívi KiZ| cw_KMY wbiew”Qbœ iv‡Zi Av‡jv‡Z `kgvBj ch©šÍ c_ Pj‡Z cviZ| Avb bvwmi wbwg©Z †hvniv cÖvmv` w`‡Mi Awe¯§iYxq KxwZ© †hvniv cÖvmv‡`i †mŠ›`h© wQj Abe`¨ I AZzjbxq| Lwjdv cÖvmv` msjMœ Awb›`¨my›`i Avi GKwU kni wbg©vY K‡ib hvi bvg wQj †hvniv|

e¨envwiK wk‡íI †¯úb mwe‡kl DbœwZ jvf K‡i| †ikg eq‡b †¯úb c„w_ex‡K gy» K‡iwQj| GK jÿ ZuvZ eq‡b wbhy³ wQj| †¯ú‡bi Avj †gvwiqv bM‡i me©v‡cÿv DrK…ó MvwjPv Ges myÿè e¯¿ cÖ¯‘Z n‡Zv I g„b¥q cvÎvw`i Ac~e© DbœwZ n‡qwQj| †gRKv Øx‡c wbwg©Z g„rcvÎ †gRvwjKv bv‡g L¨vwZ jvf K‡i| Zvgv, Kuvmv, wcZj I evmb wk‡í †¯ú‡bi wkíxMY Ac~e© K…wZZ¡ cÖ`k©b K‡iwQ‡jb|

BD‡ivc Avwd«Kvi hveZxq e›`‡i mv`‡i weµq nZ| Avj †gŠwiqvi †jŠn, Kvsm I Kuv‡Pi L¨vwZ wek¦Ry‡o wQj| GLv‡b Kuv‡Pi weivU KviLvbv wQj| Svo, dvbym, j›Ub Ges RjcvÎvw` cÖ¯‘Z nZ| nw¯Í`‡šÍi †Lv`vB wkí PgrKvi †mŠ›`h© Ges my²Zv jvf K‡iwQj| Lwjdv wØZxq nvKv‡gi bv‡g DrmM©xK…Z AZxe g‡bvÁ nw¯Í`šÍiwPZ †cwUKv †R‡ivbv bM‡ii wLªóxq †fvRbvMv‡i msiwÿZ Av‡Q| myjZvb I AvgxiM‡Yi AZ¨™¢~Z wkí †KŠkj m¤úbœ Zievwii euvU AvRI wkí †ev×v‡`i wew¯§Z K‡i| mvgvb¨ Pvwe I Zvjv¸‡jv ch©šÍ wewea KviæKv‡h© †kvwfZ n‡Zv| Avj †gvwiqv, †mwfj, U‡j‡Wv, gwm©qv Ges MÖvbvWv hy× A¯¿k¯¿vw`i Rb¨ weL¨vZ wQj| U‡j‡Wvi Zievwi I Qzwi eûg~‡j¨ weµq n‡Zv| mye„nr Kvsk wbwg©Z KcvU, dvbym I Svomg~‡n Avðh©iƒ‡c †Lv`vB †KŠkj I wPÎv¼b cwie¨³ n‡q‡Q| MÖvbvWvi myjZvb Z…Zxq gvngy‡`i Rb¨ wbwg©Z wewPÎÖ`k©b Av‡jvKavi gvw`ª‡`i Rv`yN‡i †kvfvea©b Ki‡Q| e¯‘Z K‡W©vfv gnvbMix †hgb ÁvbPP©v Ges Hk¦‡h©, †Zgwb wkí I evwY‡R¨ c„w_exi gyKzUgwb wQj|

mgvRweÁvbx I BwZnvm‡eËv Be‡b Lvwj`y‡bi ZË¡ g‡Z, GKwU ivR es‡ki w¯’wZKvj 100 eQi| †m‡ÿ‡Î cÖvq 800 eQi (711-1492) wU‡K _vKv †¯ú‡b gymjgvb‡`i kvmb we¯§‡qi D‡`ªK K‡i| P‚ovšÍfv‡e †¯úb gymwjg kvm‡bi me©‡kl `yM© MÖvbvWv cZ‡bi AšÍZ AvovB‡kv eQi Av‡M cZ‡bi aviv ïiæ nq| 1231 wLªóv‡ã wjqb I K¨v÷vB‡ji mshyw³ †¯ú‡b gymwjg KZ©…‡Z¡i cÖwZ ûgwK n‡q `uvovq| GiI cÖvq †`o‡kv eQi Av‡M (1085) wLªóvbiv Dcvq ey‡S U‡j‡Wv `Lj Ki‡j gymjgvbMY Zv Avi cyb`©Lj Ki‡Z cv‡iwb| AZtci 1236 wLªóv‡ã K‡W©vfv Ges 1248 mv‡j †mwfj wLªóvb‡`i KiZjMZ nq| c‡bi kZ‡K †¯ú‡b bZzb †Rv‡Ui Avwef©ve N‡U| AvivM‡bi ivRv (hyeivR) dvwW©b¨vÛ I K¨v÷vB‡ji ivbx Bmv‡ejv 1469 wLªóv‡ã Awffve‡Ki AÁvZmv‡i †Mvc‡b cwiYq m~‡Î Ave× nq| Gi d‡j cÖv_wgKfv‡e `yÕwU wLªóvb ivR¨ GKwÎZ n‡q †¯ú‡b gymwjg AvwacZ¨ wbg©~‡j cÖwZÁve× nq| †m‡gwUK cÖ‡dmi wnwÆi fvlvq, ÒGB wgjb †¯ú‡b gymwjg ÿgZv Aemv‡bi N›Uv aŸwb wQj|Ó

wUDUwbK †Mvôx m¤¢~Z †ivgvbxq DcRvwZi Aat¯Íb K¨v_wjK m¤úª`vqf©z³ dvwW©b¨vÛ I Bmv‡ejv wLªóvb ag©vÜ I Pig gymwjg we‡Ølx wQ‡jb| Zviv gymjgvb‡`i Dci wRNvsmv PwiZv_© Kivi Rb¨ hy× cwiPvjbv K‡ib| †m mgq bv‡mi es‡ki Avjx Avey Avj nvmvb (†¯úbxq bvg Avj evqv‡mb) (1465-82) Ki cÖ`v‡bi A¯^xK…wZ‡Z wLªóvbiv MÖvbvWv aŸsm mva‡b cÖe„Ë nq| Ggwb mg‡q Zuvi Avie ¯¿xi cÖ‡ivPbvq cyÎ gynv¤§` Avey Avãyjøvn (†¯úbxq bvg †evqvew`j) wcZvi weiæ‡× A¯¿aviY Ki‡j cwiw¯’wZ gvivZ¥K AvKvi aviY K‡i| 1482 wLªóv‡ã †evqvew`j Avj nvgiv cÖvmv` `Lj K‡i MÖvbvWvi AwacwZ nb| wbiæcvq wcZv gvjvMvq AvkÖq wb‡Z eva¨ nq| wKš‘ †evqvew`j K¨v÷vB‡ji GKwU kni AvµgY Ki‡Z wM‡q civwRZ I e›`x nb| wcZ…loh‡š¿i Hkx cÖwZ‡kva Zv‡K †c‡Z nq| Avj evqv‡mb MÖvbvWvi k~b¨ wmsnvm‡b Dc‡ekb K‡ib| wKš‘ wewaevg| loh‡š¿i wkKvi n‡q Avevi fvB Avj hvMv‡bi c‡ÿ wmsnvmb Z¨vM K‡ib|

wLªóvb `¤úwZ dvwW©b¨vÛ I Bmv‡ejv ew›` †evqvew`j‡K †¯ú‡b gymwjg AwacZ¨ aŸs‡mi nvwZqvi wn‡m‡e e¨envi K‡ib| cÖ_‡g K¨v÷vB‡j †mbvevwnbxi mvnv‡h¨ wcZ…e¨ Avj hvMv‡bi weiæ‡× Awfhvb Pvwj‡q MÖvbvWvi Ask we‡kl `Lj K‡ib| Gi d‡j M„nhy× ïiæ n‡q hvq| GB my‡hv‡M †jvRv, Avj‡gvwiqv, gvjvMvmn eû AÂj AwaKvi K‡i| AwaK…Z AÂjmg~‡n gymjgvb‡`i µxZ`vm wn‡m‡e wewµ K‡i wKsev Ab¨Î Zvwo‡q †`q| Lv`¨ I hy× miÄv‡gi Afv‡e wbiæcvq Avj hvMvb AvZ¥mgc©Y K‡ib|

AvcvZZt 1487 wLªóv‡ã †evqvew`j MÖvbvWvi wbwe©Nœ AwacwZ nb| wKš‘ wZwb †h wLªóvb `¤úwZi nv‡Zi cyZzj wQ‡jb, Zv eyS‡Z cv‡ibwb| gvÎ wZb eQi ci 1490 wLªóv‡ã ivRv-ivbx Zv‡K MÖvbvWv kni n¯ÍvšÍ‡ii wb‡`©k †`b| nZwenŸj †evqvevw`j cÖgv` ¸b‡jb| Z`ycwi mvnm K‡i MÖvbvWv mgc©‡Yi Av‡`k Agvb¨ Ki‡jb| G‡Z mvwZkq ÿzä dvwW©b¨vÛ wekvj evwnbx wb‡q MÖvbvWv Ae‡iva K‡ib| †evqvew`j cÖavb †mbvcwZ gymv web MvRv‡bi †bZ…‡Z¡ cÖPÐ cÖwZ‡iva M‡o †Zv‡jb| wecyj msL¨K Ae‡ivaKvix wbnZ nq| ZeyI wecÿ kw³i weiæ‡× wUK‡Z cvi‡jb bv| Ae‡k‡l `yÕgvm Aeiæ× _vKvi ci 50wU k‡Z© †evqvew`‡j 1492 wLªóv‡ã 2 Rvbyqvwi MÖvbvWv `yM© mgc©Y K‡ib| wbwg‡lB cwimgvwß N‡U 780 eQ‡ii jvwjZ mf¨Zv| †evqvew`j AvZ¥mg©c‡Yi ci AkÖæmRj †b‡Î †h `xN©k¦vm †d‡jwQ‡jb, AvRI †m `xN©k¦vm gymjgvb‡`i gb‡b (†¯úbxqfvlvqÑ El ultimo suspiro moro) ¯úw›`Z n‡”Q|

MÖvbvWvi cZ‡bi cieZ©x 1609 wLªóvã ch©šÍ †¯ú‡bi BwZnvm KjsKRbK I wbcxo‡bi Kvwnbx‡Z fici| d¨vwW©b¨vÛ `¤úwZ gymjgvb‡`i †Rvic~e©K wLªóvb a‡g© `xwÿZ Kivi cÖ‡Póv Pvjvq| 1526 wLªóv‡ã Aviwe fvlv, †cvkvK I ixwZbxwZ wbwl× Kiv nq| 1609 mv‡j ivRv wdwjevm †¯ú‡bi mKj gymjgvb‡K †`k Z¨vM Ki‡Z e‡jb| G‡`i A‡b‡K Avwd«Kvq Mgb K‡i, hviv cv‡iwb, Zviv wbg©g nZ¨vi wkKvi nq| wekvj gmwR‡` AvwkÖZ nvRvi nvRvi gymjgvb bi-bvix†K gmwR`mn †Mvjveviæ‡`i mvnv‡h¨ Dwo‡q †`Iqv nq| K‡W©vfv, MÖvbvWv cÖf…wZ kn‡i AwMœms‡hvM K‡i bi-bvix I evjK-evwjKv mn eûM„n f¯§xf‚Z Kiv nq| gymjgvb‡`i we`v‡q †¯ú‡bi Ae¯’v ej‡Z wM‡q HwZnvwmK †jbcyj e‡jb, ÒgyiMb weZvwoZ n‡jv, wKQzw`‡bi Rb¨ wLªóvb †¯úb D™¢vwmZ wQj; †hgb avi Kiv Av‡jv‡Z Puv` wKiY †`q, Zvici Agvem¨v ïiæ nq Ges †m AÜKv‡i †¯úb wPiw`‡bi Rb¨ wbgw¾Z nqÓ|

A`„‡ói cwinvm, †h A‰bK¨ I AšÍK©jn gymjgvb‡`i †¯ú‡b weR‡qi c_ myMg K‡iwQj; GKB Kvi‡Y gymjgvb‡`i †¯úb n‡Z wPi we`vq wb‡Z n‡jv| 1031 wLªóv‡ãi ci †¯úb AšÍZ 34wU ÿz`ª ÿz`ª iv‡R¨i D™¢e nq| B‡q‡gbx, wngvqix, wmixq gy`vixq, eve©vi, mvbnvRv I RvbvZv, cÖf…wZ Rb‡Mvôxi wfbœ wfbœ gZ †¯ú‡bi HK¨Zv‡K RR©wiZ K‡i Zz‡jwQj| cieZ©x‡Z †K›`ªxq kvm‡bi `ye©jZvi my‡hvM `wÿ‡Y eve©vi, c~‡e© køvf, `wÿ‡Y-cwðg Avie Ges Dˇi be gymwjg Ges wLªóvb‡`i Afz¨`q N‡U| ci¯ú‡ii cÖwZ wnsmv we‡Øl cwiw¯’wZ‡K bvRyK K‡i Zz‡j| wLªóvb ag©v܇`i Av‡›`vjb g~jZ †¯úb gymwjg kvm‡bi cÖwZ ûgwKi¯^iƒc wQj| wLªóvb cybR©vMi‡Yi cÖZxK ÔDgvi web nvdmy‡bi Afz¨Ìvb wLjvd‡Zi cZb‡K Z¡ivwš^Z K‡iwQj| 1469 wLªóv‡ã AvivM‡bi hyeivR dvwW©b¨v‡Ûi mv‡_ K¨v÷vB‡ji ivbx Bmv‡ejvi cwiYq †¯ú‡bi gymwjg kvm‡bi cÖwZeÜK n‡q `uvovq| ˆeevwnK m~‡Î bvfv‡iI ˆcZ…K m~‡Î cÖvß AvivMb I K¨v÷v‡j‡i mgš^‡q GKwU kw³kvjx ivR¨ wn‡m‡e Avwef©‚Z nq| bvbv K‚U‡KŠkj I loh‡š¿i gva¨‡g Zviv w¤ªqgvb I f½yi cÖvq †¯ú‡bi gymwjg kvmb‡K ch©`y¯Í K‡i †Zv‡j| bvbv NUbv cÖev‡ni gva¨‡g 1492 mv‡ji Rvbyqvix gv‡m †¯ú‡b gymwjg kvm‡bi hewbKvcvZ N‡U| q


« fvBm-†cÖwm‡W›U, evsjv‡`k RgCq‡Z Avn‡j nv`xm; cÖ‡dmi I wWb, ¯‹zj Ae AvU©m, Gwkqvb BDwbfvwm©wU Ae evsjv‡`k|


আপনার মন্তব্য

ঢাকায় সূর্যোদয় : 5:22:21 সূর্যাস্ত : 6:47:59

সাপ্তাহিক আরাফাতকে অনুসরণ করুন

@সাপ্তাহিক আরাফাত